Tech Terms M to R
Macromedia Flash – Uses macros to manipulate vector-based graphics, creating advanced animated sequences.
Markup – A type of programming language that does not require compilation, or supporting libraries.
Metadata – Data about data, such as document description and keywords that help search engines index the page.
Mirror – To copy data or a website to a redundant machine, to protect against data loss due to equipment failure, or to divide up website bandwidth among more than one machine.
Modem - a device that modulates and demodulates telephone toned to allow for the multiplexing of information on the telephone network.
Modulate – To turn a digital signal into an analog signal.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) – Allows HTTP and email attachments to identify the type of file being downloaded (text, image, application, audio and video), and the application to be used to process the file.
Multimedia – documents which contain text, sound, graphics and video elements that are all capable of being displayed to the user.
Netiquette - The etiquette on the Internet.
Netizen - Derived from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet,or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic responsibility and participation.
Network - Any time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can share resources.
Network Access Point (NAP) – A junction between one high-speed network and another.
Newsgroup - the name for discussion groups.
NFS – Network File System - set of protocols that allow transparent access to a remote computers file system – another type is the Andrew File System (AFS).
NIC - Network Information Center. Generally, any office that handles information for a network.
- Network Interface card. which is the card in a computer that you plug a network cable into.
NNTP - Network News Transport Protocol. The protocol used by client and server software to carry postings back and forth over a TCP/IP network.
Node - Any single computer connected to a network.
Open Source Software - Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) – Defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) with three practical functions: it gives developers universal concepts to work with as they develop interoperable protocols, it describes the process of packet creation, and it explains the framework used to communicate with heterogeneous systems.
Operator – A symbol such as plus (+) or minus (-) or an asterisk (*) as a wildcard, used in search engine queries to include or exclude certain ranges of potential results.
Packet – Carries sufficient information for routing from the originating host to the destination host using the IP address. Also called a datagram.
Packet Inter-Net Groper (PING) – A utility that tests connectivity between your system and a destination system (an IP address or a host name).
Packet Switching - The method used to move data around on the Internet.
Password - A code used to gain access (login) to a locked system.
Patch – A file of programming code that is inserted into an existing executable program to fix a known program error, or bug.
PDF - Portable Document Format. A file format designed to enable printing and viewing of documents with all their formatting (typefaces, images, layout, etc.) appearing the same regardless of what operating system is used.
Peer-to-Peer – A network in which each computer has the same client and server capabilities as the others in the network, allowing direct sharing of files.
Perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language. Perl is a programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications.
Permalink - A permalink is a URI that points to a specific posting, rather than to the page in which the posting original.
PHP - Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP is a programming language used almost exclusively for creating software that is part of a web site.
Ping - To check if a server is running. From the sound that a sonar systems makes in movies, you know, when they are searching for a submarine.
Plagiarism – A specific instance of an infringement in which an individual or entity claims to have created content that was in fact created by others.
Plain Text – Unencrypted data
Plug-in - A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software.
PNG - Portable Network Graphics. PNG is a graphics format specifically designed for use on the World Wide Web. PNG enable compression of images without any loss of quality.
Podcasting or pod-casting - A form of audio broadcasting using the Internet.
POP - Point of Presence. A Point of Presence usually means a city or location where a network can be connected to.
- Post Office Protocol. A refers to a way that e-mail client software gets mail from a mail server.
Posting - A single message entered into a network communications system.
PPP – Point to Point Protocol an Internet standard for electronically connectiong a remote computer to an IP network – the method slowly replacing SLIP.
Primary Partition – The designated “active” section of a hard drive reserved for the files necessary to boot an operating system.
Protocol - On the Internet "protocol" usually refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems.
Proxy Server - A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use.
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) – Historical cornerstone of data communication, once analog but now almost completely digital.
Pull Technology – A technique that only provides information to a client explicitly upon request from the client.
Push Technology – A technique that automatically provides information to a client list.
Record – A collection of information consisting of one or more related fields about a specific entity, such as a person, product or event.
Relational Database – Contains multiple tables of information that are related through common fields.
Ring Topology – Connects each computer to a circular connection configuration.
Router – Forwards data from one network to another, also used to create discrete network segments.